Tuesday, November 27, 2018

Circuit Splits!

map shows four circuits on left, six on right, divided by jagged lines

Circuit split. Original map (pre-splitting) from U.S. Courts

The United States Courts of Appeals are divided into geographic circuits, numbered first through eleventh, plus the D.C. Circuit and Federal Circuit. By and large, their interpretations of federal law are consistent. But sometimes one circuit's interpretation differs from another, creating a "circuit split."

Circuit splits often show points of tension in the law. It's not that the judges are disagreeing just to disagree. Smart, well-meaning judges can reach different conclusions on tough issues. Eventually, one side might persuade the other, Congress might enact a law resolving the difference, or the Supreme Court will agree to hear a case that will settle the question. 

In the meantime, lawyers and legal scholars keep an eye on the splits. When you're looking for a paper topic—some area of the law where your analysis could shed some light—check out circuit splits.

One great tool? Bloomberg Law's U.S. Law Week Circuit Splits Table.

For example, I skimmed Circuit Splits Reported in U.S. Law Week—October 2018 and found this:
Criminal Law 
Case: United States v. Schonewolf, 87 U.S.L.W. 677, 2018 BL 366122
Issue: May a defendant’s need to enter rehabilitation be given any weight during her revocation hearing?
The Third Circuit joins the First, Second, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Circuits, saying it may be given some weight. The the Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh Circuits say any consideration of rehabilitation during sentencing is impermissible.
I took a map of the circuits and made the split graphically. In the picture at the top of this post we see six circuits split off on the right, four to the left, and the third and D.C. circuits in a gray area in the middle, since they haven't reached the issue. (I'm not using "right" and "left" to suggest political slants. It just happened that most of the circuits on one side of the issue were on the right, or east, side of the map.)

Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Wednesday 11/21/18

The Library will be closing early on Wednesday 11/21/18 at 3:00. The Reference Office will be closed at 12:00.

We will be closed for the holiday starting on Thursday 11/22/18-11/25/18.

The Library will resume normal hours on Monday 11/26/18

Old Exams—and Really Old Exams

The library hosts an archive of old UW Law exams, which many students use to prepare for the strange genre of law school exams. (By request of the faculty, it is limited to UW users: you'll have to enter your NetID.)

The archive is arranged by faculty name. If you don't find your professor listed, take heart! You can use ctrl-f to search for the name of the course. If you don't find a civil procedure exam from your professor, you can find many exams from other professors. (Even if you do find exams from your professor, you might find it helpful to look at other exams, too.)

If you'd like even more exams to practice on, see this list of exams from other schools.

Pay attention to the dates. If you find a model answer to a Civil Procedure exam from 1994, don't be surprised if it doesn't mention  Bell Atlantic v. Twombly or Ashcroft v. Iqbal: they were decided in 2007 and 2009. You're looking at model answers to see how successful students organize and explain their answers, not for the substantive law.

Harvard Law School’s old exams cover 1871–1995. The more recent decades will have exams very much like the ones that are common today. The old ones have a different format and sometimes cover different concepts.

Christopher Columbus Langdell (1826–1906), a professor at and then the dean of Harvard Law School, is famous for pioneering the case method in law schools, teaching from collections of cases, using Socratic questioning, rather than lecturing. The1872/73 volume of Harvard exams includes some of Professor Langdell's. The Contracts exam (p. 312) could be handled by a current student. E.g.,
gray-scale etching of Langdell - old man with white beard
Christopher Columbus Langdell, by Otto J. Schneider.
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution

1. What is a unilateral contract, and what is a bilateral contract? Give an example of each. What is the consideration of a bilateral contract not under seal?  
5. A and B being engaged to be married, the uncle of B promised A that if he would marry B, he (the uncle) would pay A an annuity of $500- during the life of B. The marriage having taken place, can the uncle, or not, be compelled to perform his promise, and why? Would it, or not, make any difference if there were mutual promises between A and the uncle, and why? 
But his exam for Civil Procedure at Common Law (p. 314) asked about concepts I'd never heard of:
1. What is profert, and when is it necessary to make it? What is oyer, when is a party entitled to it, and what purpose does it serve? 
3. When should a count begin with the words “For that whereas,” and when should the word “whereas” be omitted, and why? 
5. What is the plea of liberum tenementum, and when may it be pleaded?
6. In an action for slander, imputing theft, is it or not necessary for the plaintiff to aver that he is not a thief, and why? 
7. Upon a special demurrer to a replication, it appeared that the declaration, plea, and replication were all bad in substance. Who was entitled to judgment, and why?
10. What is a repleader, and when does it become necessary?
(There's another Civil Procedure exam, just as arcane, on p. 315.)

What a difference the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure made!

For more on Langdell, see this memorial from the American Law Register (the predecessor to the University of Pennsylvania Law Review) from 1907.

Civil Lawsuits Without Tears: A free walk-in workshop

The Public Law Library of King County will be holding a free walk-in workshop on December 10th. For more information, check out their page on Self-Represented Litigate (SRL) Workshops. 

Winter Cooking at the Law School

With the weather getting colder, and the leaves dropping off trees I find myself locked away baking in my home more and more. In the spirit of chilly weather cooking, I have reached out to faculty and staff of the law school to contribute some of their favorite recipes.

Events & Conferences Coordinator
Recipe: Banana Nut Bread

Preheat oven at 350 degrees
3 large ripe bananas
½ cup of sugar
2 eggs
1 ½ teaspoon vanilla
2 cups flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
½ teaspoon salt
¼ cup vegetable oil
1 cup chopped walnuts
In large bowl mash bananas and add sugar, eggs, and vanilla. In smaller bowl mix flour, baking soda and salt. Slowly incorporate dry ingredients into wet but don’t over-mix. Add oil and chopped nuts and transfer to loaf pan. Bake at 350 degrees for approx. 45 minutes.

Professor of Law
Recipe: THE MIX

*this is great for studying, bringing to potlucks or giving as gifts.  It’s easy to make but sticky. You need a large baking pan with sides. 

2 large boxes Barbara’s original Morning Oat Crunch (the size box they sell at Trader Joe’s)
2 8oz bags of pecan halves
2 bottles trader joe agave syrup (about 24 oz total)
2 sticks butter
Brown sugar (up to you; I go light - maybe a cup)
4 tsp vanilla
2 tsp baking soda

Preheat oven to 250.  in large baking pan, mix the cereal and the pecans.
In VERY large bowl, microwave butter until melted.  Add syrup and brown sugar and microwave at high until boiling.  Stir in vanilla.  Then slowly stir in baking soda.  THE BAKING SODA WILL MAKE THE MIXTURE FOAM TO ALMOST DOUBLE IN VOLUME.  
Immediately pour over the cereal and nuts and stir to coat evenly.  (Stir a lot).  
Bake 1 hour, stirring frequently.  
Let cool, break into pieces, and store in a large cookie tin. 

NOTE:  it usually takes me at least a batch to get the proportions right, because this is somewhat of a science experiment.  


Senior Law Lecturer
Recipe: Low Carb Lasagna Puttanesca aka "LARW-sagna Puttanesca"

I kind of make it up as I go:
1.       Cut a couple of big eggplants lengthwise, and slice them up in a mandolin, usually on the thickest setting (but still quite thin). 
2.    Get out the other ingredients:  tomato sauce, green olives, red peppers, mushrooms (optional), chopped onion (optional), lots of capers, several cloves of garlic, oregano, a few dried Thai chilies, olive oil, ricotta (you can throw an egg into the ricotta if you want), sour cream, Parmesan, mozzarella, black pepper, fresh cherry tomatoes, some almond meal or slivered almonds. If you like fish or want more umami get out some anchovies, too.
3.    Start making layers with a little olive oil, a layer of eggplant, tomato sauce, some of the cheeses, cream, a squeeze of the garlic press, some olives, capers, etc.
4.    Repeat a few times.
5.    When you get to the top of the baking dish, mash everything down a little so it feels compressed, then put tomatoes, olives, and capers on the top, add just a little of the chili, and a thicker layer of mozzarella and Parmesan. Add in some almond slivers or meal and salt and pepper and viola.
6.   Bake at around 450 for 45 mins to 1 hr with foil, then broil the top for 5 minutes while watching without foil.
7.     Let it cool and solidify for a couple of hours. Garnish with fresh parsley or serve with a parsley salad and bold red wine.


Helpdesk Technician
Recipe: !!!!!!!!CHEESECAKE!!!!!!!!

What You Need
1 cup graham cracker crumbs 
 1/3 cup packed brown sugar 
 1/4 cup butter, melted 
 4 pkg. (8 oz. each) PHILADELPHIA Cream Cheese, softened 
 1 cup granulated sugar 
 2 Tbsp. flour 
 1 tsp. vanilla 
 4 eggs 
 1 tsp. zest and 1 Tbsp. juice from 1 each lemon, lime and orange

Let's Make It
1.       Heat oven to 325°F.
2.       Combine graham crumbs, brown sugar and butter; press onto bottom of 9-inch springform pan. Bake 10 min.
3.       Beat cream cheese, granulated sugar, flour and vanilla in large bowl with mixer until blended. Add eggs, 1 at a time, mixing on low speed after each just until blended. Stir in remaining ingredients; pour over crust.
4.       Bake 1 hour 5 min. or until center is almost set. Run knife around rim of pan to loosen cake; cool before removing rim. Refrigerate cheesecake 4 hours.

How to Prepare in 13x9-Inch Pan
Prepare recipe as directed, increasing the graham crumbs to 1-1/2 cups and the butter to 1/3 cup, and decreasing the final cheesecake baking time to 40 min. or until center is almost set.
How to Avoid Cracked Cheesecakes
After adding the eggs, be careful not to overbeat the batter since this can cause the baked cheesecake to crack.

If using a dark nonstick 9-inch springform pan, reduce oven temperature to 300°F.

Editor-Research Publications I
Recipe: Cheese soufflé

This is a family favorite my Grandma taught me to make. It was one of my Grandpa’s favorites. It was a frequent go-to recipe when I was in school because I always had the ingredients on hand, it was quick to mix up and bake, and any not consumed at dinner was great warmed up the next day.

2 T butter
1 heaping T flour
3 egg, yolks and whites separated
1 C milk
1 C grated cheese
paprika to taste
1/2 t salt
pepper to taste

Preheat oven to 350°.

Beat separated egg yolks until smooth. Set aside.  Beat egg whites until frothy and they hold a peak when you remove the beater from the whites.  (I use a hand-powered egg beater, but an electric mixer can be used). Set the whites aside.

Melt butter in a 1 qt. pan, slowly stir in sifted flour. Add milk slowly, a bit at a time, stirring constantly to make mixture smooth. Add salt, pepper, and paprika, stirring constantly.
As mixture begins to thicken, remove from heat.

Use a tablespoon to spoon some of the mixture into the beaten egg yolks.  Stir.  Then add another tablespoon of the mixture into the beaten egg yolks.  This is helping the eggs adjust to the heat of the mixture so that they don’t curdle when you put all of the egg yolks into the mixture.  Repeat this until the egg yolks have warmed up with the incorporation of the heated flour/milk mixture.  Then scrape the yolks mixture into the pan with the flour/milk mixture and stir until smooth.

Add the cheese to the pan with the flour/milk mixture and the egg yolks and stir until cheese begins to melt. (The cheese doesn’t have to be entirely melted as it will melt while the soufflé bakes.) Then add the frothy beaten egg whites and stir just enough to incorporate the egg whites into the mixture.  You don’t want to stir too much and deflate the egg whites as that’s where the rise of the soufflé will come from.

Use a 2-quart round glass baking dish, buttered on the inside (you won’t use the lid). Pour the soufflé mixture into the buttered glass baking dish and place the dish in the pre-heated oven at 350° and bake for approximately 20-25 minutes.  Soufflé will rise above the top of the baking dish and when it is golden brown on top, remove from the oven.  Serve while hot.
Note:  Try not to open the oven door repeatedly while cooking as this can cause the soufflé to fall.  Use any kind of cheese you like.  My family usually used a mixture of sharp cheddar, Colby jack, and pepper jack cheeses.

Co-Editor, Current Index to Legal Periodicals (CILP)
Recipe: Chocolate Cake

I got this recipe from Bon Appetit magazine a long time ago.   I’ve made it countless times.  It’s a dark chocolate cake with cinnamon undertones and a rich chocolate frosting.  Quite easy to make!


2 c. flour
2 c. sugar
¼ t. salt
1 c. strong coffee
1 c. (2 sticks) butter, cut into pieces
½ c. unsweetened cocoa powder
½ c. buttermilk
2 eggs, beaten to blend
1 t. cinnamon
1 t. baking soda
1 t. vanilla extract
½ c. unsweetened cocoa powder
½ c. (1 stick) butter, cut into pieces
6 to 8 T. buttermilk
1 lb. powdered sugar (3-1/2 to 4 c.)
1 t. vanilla extract
1 c. chopped walnuts, toasted (optional)

For cake:  Preheat oven to 350 degrees.  Butter 9x13 pan; dust pan with flour.  Mix flour, sugar and salt in large bowl.  Combine coffee, butter and cocoa in heavy medium saucepan.  Stir over medium heat until mixture is smooth and comes to a boil.  Pour coffee mixture over flour mixture; stir until blended.  Add buttermilk, eggs, cinnamon, baking soda and vanilla, and stir until well blended.  Pour batter into prepared pan.
Bake cake until tester inserted into center comes out clean, about 30 minutes.  Cool cake in pan on rack.

For frosting:  Combine cocoa, butter and 6 tablespoons buttermilk in heavy large saucepan over high heat.  Stir until mixture is smooth and comes to boil.  Remove from heat.  Add powdered sugar and vanilla, and beat frosting until smooth, adding more buttermilk by tablespoonfuls if frosting is too thick.
Spread frosting over cooled cake in pan.  Sprinkle walnuts over.

Library Technician II
Chicken Marbella, Easy Chicken Recipe

Chicken Marbella is delicious and so easy, the original recipe says to marinate ahead of time and bake in the oven. NO that is too much extra effort. I throw everything in the crockpot/instant pot and call it a day. This recipe is easy to scale up or down depending on whether you want to eat it all week or just for a meal or two. Buying a pack of boneless chicken thighs makes it really easy.

The original recipe is for 4 CHICKENS! Totally unreasonable for a college student.
Ingredients for original recipe if you need to feed an army:

1/2 cup olive oil
1/2 cup red wine vinegar
1 cup pitted prunes
1/2 cup pitted Spanish green olives
1/2 cup capers with a bit of juice
6 bay leaves
1 head of garlic, peeled and finely pureed
1/4 cup dried oregano
Coarse salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
4 chickens (2 1/2 pounds each), quartered
1 cup brown sugar
1 cup dry white wine
1/4 cup fresh Italian (flat-leaf) parsley or fresh cilantro, finely chopped
Modified to feed 1-4 people:

2 tablespoons olive oil if I have it otherwise vegetable/canola
2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
8-10 pitted prunes
1 can green olives drained
1 can black pearl olives drained
2 large spoonful’s capers with a splash of juice
1 bayleaf
3-5 cloves garlic (smashed with a press or finely chopped)
2-3 tablespoons dried oregano
Salt & pepper to taste
1 pack chicken thighs (or legs or combo of the two, could also do breasts if you prefer white meat or a whole chicken)
2 tablespoons brown sugar (sometimes I forget to put this in or don’t have it on hand. It’s great with or without)
½ cup dry white wine (I rarely include this ingredient)
No parsley or cilantro because I rarely have it on hand.
I don’t mix these ingredients, I throw them all in the crockpot and turn it on low for 8 hours. Or high for 4. This goes really well with rice, mashed potatoes or garlic bread. It can also be mixed ahead, stick the whole thing in the crockpot stick the pot in the fridge then pull it out and turn it on before you leave for class so you can come home to a hot meal.
If you made the above recipe and are confused what to make with the rest of your capers…

You can also cook this easy chicken dish.
1 teaspoon sea salt
1 teaspoon dried oregano
2 pounds bone-in, skin-on chicken thighs
2 tablespoons butter or olive oil
1/2 onion, peeled, and chopped
3 garlic cloves, minced
1/4 cup capers with brine
1/2 lemon, thinly sliced
1/4 cup white wine (but only if you have it)
3 cups Chicken Broth (less is fine)
1 can artichoke hearts
1 cup Kalamata olives (black or green olives or a combo of all three works too)
1 1/2 teaspoons chopped fresh oregano (use tablespoon of dried if you have it)
3-5 spoonful’s of pesto

The linked recipe has all sorts of fussy cooking instructions like browning the chicken and deglazing the pot. NOPE I do not have time for all of that! I throw all of this in a casserole dish and bake it in the oven (for about an hour then check for doneness), it would be even easier done in the crock pot. Same cooking time as above recipe. As a side dish I cook two cups of white rice with chicken broth and a couple spoonful’s of pesto. All of the ingredients for both recipes can be found at Trader Joe’s, within walking distance of the law school and are pretty affordable.

If you still have leftover capers…

You can also eat them for breakfast on your fancy bagel.

Plain or savory bagel of your choice toasted
Cream cheese
Smoked salmon or lox
Thinly sliced red onion
A few drained capers per bagel slice
Recipe notes: Onion can be left off if you don’t like raw onion. And Trader Joe’s is the cheapest place I’ve found to get lox. If I have a ripe avocado sometimes I also include a couple slices of that. This is also a great lunch.

Executive Director, Center for Law, Science and Global Health & Asian Law Center and Visiting Scholars Program
Recipe: Gingerbread

From The Silver Palate Cookbook, by Julee Rosso and Sheila Lukins, c. 1982, Workman Publishing, New York.

1 2/3 cups unbleached all-purpose flour
1 ¼ teaspoons baking soda
1 ½ teaspoons ground ginger
¾ teaspoon ground cinnamon
¾ teaspoon salt
1 egg, lightly beaten
½ cup granulated sugar
½ cup molasses
½ cup boiling water
½ cup vegetable oil
Lemon glaze
1.       Preheat oven to 350
2.    Sift dry ingredients together into a mixing bowl. Add egg sugar and molasses. Mix well
3.    Pour boiling water and oil over mixture. Stir thoroughly until smooth
4.    Pour batter into the prepared pan. Set on the middle rack of the oven and bake for 35 to 40 minutes or until top springs back when touched and the edges have pulled away slightly from the sides of the pan
5.    While the gingerbread is still hot, pour glaze over top and cool in the pan, set on a rack.
12 portions
Lemon Glaze
2/3 cup confectioners’ sugar
3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
1.       Sift sugar into a bowl
2.    Add lemon juice and mix well

Assistant Librarian, Research Services
Recipe: crock pot turkey chili 
1 lb. ground turkey
2 cans kidney beans (or replace one with a can of great northern beans)
1 can black beans
1 can tomato sauce
1 can diced tomatoes
½ medium onion, chopped
2 tbs. chili powder
½ tbs garlic powder
1 tsp red pepper flakes
½ tbs ground cumin
1 pinch black pepper
1 pinch allspice (or not)

1.       Brown turkey in skillet
2.    Coat inside of crock pot with cooking spray, add everything else
3.    Cover and cook on high for four hours or on low for 8 hours.

Professor of Law
Recipes: Butterscotch Shortbread, Coco brownies, Gingerbread, Malted Brownies, Peppermint Pats, Praline Cookies

Source:  Based on  Betty Crocker’s Cooky Book (1963; 12th printing 1972)

Temp: 300º
1 cup shortening (part butter
            Or margarine; L – use no shortening; only
            good UNSALTED butter-French/Danish - cultured)         
½ cup brown sugar (packed)
¼ cup granulated white sugar
2 ¼  cups all-purpose flour  (L-2 cups white; ¼ oat flour)
1 tsp. salt (optional)(L – NO)
Preheat oven.  Mix shortening/butter and sugars thoroughly.  Measure flour by dipping method or by sifting (L-dip).   Mix flour and salt; stir in.  Mix thoroughly.  Roll out ¼” think on floured board.  Cut into desired shapes.  (L – If in a rush, roll dough into cylinders. Can chill or refrigerate for later use.  Slice rounds from cylinders of approximately ¼” thickness.)  Place on ungreased baking sheet.  Bake 20 -25 minutes.
L – Varying thickness can affect crispness – the thinner you’ve rolled it, the crispier they will be. 
Makes about 7 ½ dozen small cookies.

Cocoa brownies (From B. Crocker cookie cookbook):
½ cup shortening
1 cup sugar
2 eggs
1 tsp. vanilla
2/3 cup flour
½ cup cocoa
½ tsp. baking powder
½ tsp. salt (optional)
½ cup walnuts (optional)
½ cup chocolate chips (optional) or spring top with broken peppermint, etc.
Oven: 350 degrees
Mix shortening, sugar, eggs, and vanilla until well blended. Measure and add flour, cocoa. Add and blend dry ingredients into the egg/sugar mixture. Stir in nuts or any add ins.  Don’t overstir! Spread in greased 8” x 8” pan. Bake about 30 minutes. Cool. EAT
Source: Spice Cookbook – Late 19th century (owned by Leslie Tentler)
2 ¼ cup flour
1 ½ tsp. baking powder
½ tsp. salt (optional)
½ tsp. ground cloves
1 tsp. powdered mustard
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. ginger (powder)
½ cup shortening
½ cup sugar
1 cup unsulphured molasses
1 egg
1 cup hot water
1. Sift first three ingredients together. (I never do but whatever.)
2. Mix all of the spices into the shortening until evenly blended.
3. Blend sugar and molasses into shortening mixture. Beat in egg.
4. Alternately add hot water and flour mixture. Beat batter for ½ minute.
5. Pour batter into greased and floured 9 x 9 backing pan.
Bake at 350º for 45 – 50 minutes. Cool. Dust with powdered sugar if desired.
Malted Brownies
Roxanne Chan, Albany, California. Sunset, compiled by Karyn I. Lipman
1 1/3 cups all purpose flour
1 cup sugar
¾ cup malted milk powder
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 ½ cups (9 oz.)  semisweet chocolate baking chips
About ½ cup (1/4 lb.) butter or margarine
3 large eggs, separated
2 teaspoons vanilla
Chocolate glaze (recipe follows)
About 20 pecan halves (optional)
In a bowl, mix flour, ½ cup sugar, malted milk powder, and baking powder: set aside.
            In a 2- to 3-quart pan over law heat stir ½ cup chocolate chips and ½ cup butter until melted. Remove from heat. Add four mixture, egg yolks, and vanilla beating to blend. Stir in remaining 1 cup chocolate chips.
            In a deep bowl whip egg whites with an electric mixer on high speed until foamy. Gradually beat in remaining ½ cup sugar, 1 tablespoon at a time, until whites hold stiff, moist peaks. Stir 1/3 of the whites into chocolate mixture, then gently fold in remainder.
            Butter and flour-dust a 7-by11-inch or 9-inch-square pan. Pour batter into pan; smooth top. Bake in a 325 oven until the top looks dry and brownie begins to pull form pan sides, about 45 minutes. Set on a rack and spread with chocolate glaze. When cool, cut brownie unto 20 pieces and top each with a pecan. Serve, or wrap airtight up to 2 days. Makes 20
Chocolate Glaze
In a 1- to -1 ½ -quart pan over low heat stir 1 cup (6 oz.) semisweet chocolate baking chips with 1/3 cup whipping cream and 2 teaspoons vanilla. Use warm.
Peppermint Pats
BH Gardens Jr. Cookbook circa 1955
            4 cups confectioners’ sugar
            2/3 cup sweetened condensed milk
            Few drops green food coloring
            ¼ teaspoon peppermint extract
1.       Sift confectioners’ sugar onto a piece of waxed paper. Measure 4 cups
2.    Mix milk, flavoring. Shake 3 drops coloring into spoon first. Then mix it in well
3.    Beat in sugar gradually. Mix smooth with hands when the candy gets stiff
4.    Form in 30 small balls. Place on waxed paper. Flatten with fork tines.  
Praline Cookies
1 2/3 c sifted flour
1 ½ t baking powder
½ t salt
½ c butter
1 ½ c firmly packed brown sugar
1 egg, unbeaten
1 t vanilla
1 c pecan halves
Praline frosting (recipe follows)
Sift flour again with baking powder and salt into small bowl; set aside.
            In large bowl of electric mixer, cream butter until smooth; gradually add brown sugar and cream it until light and fluffy. Blend in egg, vanilla and reserved dry ingredients; beat until well combined. Drop by rounded teaspoons onto ungreased cookie sheet, about three inches apart. Bake at 350 degrees 10 to 12 minutes, until golden brown. Remove from cookie sheet immediately and cool on wax paper. Break up pecan halves and place several pieces on top of each cookie. Drizzle a teaspoon of praline frosting (recipe follows) on top of pecans “cementing” them to the cookie. Makes about four to 4 ½ dozen three inch cookies.

Praline Frosting
            1 c firmly packed brown sugar
            ½ c cream
            1 c confectioner’s sugar
In small saucepan combine brown sugar and cream. Bring to boil, stirring constantly; boil two minutes. Remove from heat and blend in confectioner’s sugar; beat until smooth. If frosting becomes too thick, thin with a few drops of cream. Makes about 1 ½ cups Praline Frosting.

Director of Technology Services

These recipes are also posted in a Gallagher Law Library in a display, so come check them out! We have physical packets as well with some of the listed recipes. We hope you enjoy, and happy winter!

Friday, November 9, 2018

Native American Heritage Month

Dip Net Fishing on the Columbia River
Illustration from Personal Recollections and Observations of General Nelson A. Miles
(1896), p. 377, available in British Library's photostream on Flickr

To mark Native American Heritage Month, why not take a few minutes to vist the Native American Rights Fund (NARF) website? It's a good way to get an idea of the legal issues in Indian Country. After a little browsing, you can pop over to the National Indian Law Library (part of NARF) for the Tribal Law Gateway and a variety of research guides. To keep up with new developments in Indian law, sign up for one or more of the Indian Law News Bulletins.

For more research tips, see our own Indian & Tribal Law research guide. Interested in history? The guide's last section, Selected Books Related to Indian Law, lists some great books.