Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Law Librarian Research Hack: Congressional Research Service Reports


Hack #11: Finding CRS Reports (the CRS might as well stand for “Crazy Reliable Sources”)

Within the Library of Congress lives an agency called the Congressional Research Service (CRS). The CRS exists for the sole purpose of providing members of Congress with "comprehensive and reliable legislative research and analysis that are timely, objective, authoritative and confidential." The idea is that in order to make informed decisions, legislators need accurate and unbiased information related to the topics on which they are proposing and passing laws.

CRS' research and analysis often comes in the form of reports, although the researchers also generate several other types of publications. The reports, which are on a wide range of topics, are well-researched and full of useful information. Given the thorough and nonpartisan nature of the CRS reports, they make an excellent starting point for any research project. Perhaps most helpfully, the reports are often heavily footnoted and can point you to other relevant sources (both primary and secondary). If you can find a CRS report (or really any CRS publication) on-point for your research topic, go out and buy a lottery ticket because it's your lucky day!




So where do you go to find these wonderfully useful resources? Well, there's a research guide for that! Specifically, the Gallagher Law Library's guide to Congressional Research Services Reports. The guide includes links to several resources, both free and UW licensed. Note that coverage and search capabilities for each resource varies.

For the most recent CRS materials, check out the relatively new Library of Congress repository available at crsreports.congress.gov. This site was created following passage of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2018, which directed the Librarian of Congress to make all non-confidential written CRS products freely available to the public online. It includes new publications and an ever-growing backfile of older publications (I was able to locate CRS reports from as far back as October 2008). It also has the added bonus of not only including CRS reports, but other types of publications generated by the CRS (Legal Sidebars, In Focus, and written testimony from CRS experts called before Congress). 

The site is keyword searchable, but you can also just browse through the latest publications on the site by clicking the “SEARCH” button without entering any terms in the search bar. Doing so gives you an idea of the variety of topics that members of Congress are interested in. For example, fourteen new publications were uploaded to the site yesterday (June 18, 2019). A sampling of the titles of those items include:
If you are looking for older CRS reports, you'll want to search one of the other available sources. EveryCRSReport.com in particular is easy to use and has extensive holdings (nearly 15,000 publications) dating back to the 1970s.

If you want to know more about what CRS does, there is (appropriately) a 2011 CRS report titled The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process.

Practice!

Imagine that a supervisor would like you to do a research project regarding the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) during your summer internship. You know nothing about the FDCPA. See if you can locate a helpful publication from the CRS on this topic. How about net neutrality? Or navy ship naming? Try using both crsreports.congress.gov and EveryCRSReport.com. Do you get the same results?


Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Railroads Need Law, Too


You hear a lot about the need for law to address issues raised by new technology like autonomous vehicles, drones, and robots. Folks in the Technology Law & Policy Clinic (UW Law) and the Tech Policy Lab (School of Law, Information School, Computer Science & Engineering, and other units on campus) are among those wrestling with those issues.

photo of steam locomotive in woods
Photo by Casey Horner on Unsplash
But this isn't the first time the law has had to figure out how to respond to new technology. The coming of the railroads created huge challenges. You might remember from Torts class the cases about liability for fires caused by passing trains and rules about liability for injuries to railway workers. And of course, where would Civil Procedure be without Erie Railroad v. Tompkins? Beyond that one case of a man injured in Pennsylvania suing in New York federal court, think how diversity jurisdiction is shaped by the ease of transportation. If you never traveled further than you could ride a horse, you'd usually be in your home state, dealing with businesses based right there.

This year marks the 150th anniversary of the completion of first transcontinental railroad. People noting the occasion include descendants of the Chinese workers who did a lot of the heavy lifting, as reported on NPR yesteerday. See the Chinese Railroad Workers Descendants Association Facebook page. For more on the Chinese immigrant experience during that era, see John R. Wunder, Gold Mountain Turned to Dust: Essays on the Legal History of the Chinese in the Nineteenth-Century American West (2018).

And for more (much more!) on railroads, see our Macfarlane Transportation Collection Guide. Robert S. Macfarlane (UW Law class of 1922) spent several decades as counsel to and then president and chairman of the Northern Pacific Railway and its successor company, Burlington Northern. (That was after serving as chief deputy prosecutor for the King County Prosecutor's Office and being a judge of the King County Superior Court. Busy guy!) In his memory, his family has created a fund that has enabled the law library to buy works in transportation law.  The Macfarlane Lounge on the fourth floor is also named in his honor.

If your summer reading tastes run to railroad history or transportation policy, there's plenty to choose from!

One last bit of railroad-and-the-law trivia: When young William O. Douglas left his family home in Yakima to go to Yale Law School, he saved money by traveling by boxcar, tending 1000 sheep for part of the way and just riding the rails the rest of the way. G. Edward White, The Anti-Judge: William O. Douglas and the Ambiguities of Individuality, 74 Va. L. Rev. 17, 22–24 (1988), HeinOnline.

Law Librarian Writing Hack: Setting Tabs in Microsoft Word

Hack # 10: Set Tabs Using Ruler to Control Formatting

Set Up -- it's best to work with tabs formatting with the ruler showing and the "Show/Hide" feature toggled to "Show." Here's how to do that:

Here’s what the blank page looks like with “Show Ruler” turned off:

Here’s what the blank page looks like with “Show Ruler” turned on. Notice the ruler above and to the left side of the document outlined in red below:
If you don't already have the ruler showing in Microsoft Word, go to the "Search" feature at the top of the ribbon and type "Show Ruler" without the quotes. When the "Show Ruler" prompt appears, click on it and the ruler will appear at the top of the document and along the left side of the document, as shown in the red outlining above.
Having the ruler visible allows you to quickly format paragraph indentations, hanging indents, change the margins, and set left, right, center, and decimal-point aligned tabs which are useful in a variety of ways, including columns, creating a table of contents, and providing other formatting to your document that makes it more reader friendly. Using the ruler allows you to do these tasks without time-consuming browsing through the Tabs to find the controls you need to accomplish these tasks.

If you don't usually work with "Show" of the "Show/Hide" feature on, you'll want to turn "Show" on while working with tabs because it allows you to see that you've only tabbed once between columns which is essential for the columns to align when you set the tabs using the ruler.

To toggle between "Show" and "Hide", go to the Home tab and look for the ¶ icon in the Paragraph section of the toolbar. Click on the ¶ icon to turn on "Show" and the icon will appear highlighted. To turn off show, just click on the ¶ icon again and "Hide" will be on.

Note: The Show/Hide feature is showing or hiding the non-printing formatting marks, such as returns at the end of paragraphs, tabs in tabular materials, manual page breaks, manual line breaks, etc. Being able to see those formatting marks hastens any troubleshooting you need to do while formatting your Word document. With "hide" on you don't see the formatting marks, and for instance, couldn't see that you had inadvertently hit the tab key twice between one row of your columnar material and that's why it's not aligning to the tab you set. With "show" on, you would quickly spot the errant extra tab.

Here, for instance is how tabs and returns appear when Show is turned on:
This is a tab formatting mark  √†  and this    is the return formatting mark.

Now that you have your Ruler showing and Show turned on, we're ready to set some tabs using the Ruler. Here is a description of some of the features in the tab/indent ruler box in the upper left above the left-side vertical ruler. For today's hack, were focusing on the tab features rather than the indent features:

Tab Types:
To set the tabs you click on the tab icon to pick your tab type (left, centered, right, decimal or bar) and then point your cursor on the ruler and click where you want to set that tab. The column for that tab will align in the manner you specify by the tab in the ruler. Below is a sample of columnar material before the tabs are set. There is one tab between each column but the tabs haven't been set yet.



Day        Time      Location

Monday               8:30 AM               Room 1422
Monday               9:45 AM               Room 124
Tuesday               10:00 AM            Room 755
Wednesday        8:30 AM               Room 1422
Thursday             12:30 PM             Room 444
Friday 2:30 PM  Room 297

Use your cursor to highlight the lines of the columns above, anchoring on "Day" and highlighting through "Room 297".  Then click on the tab block (the square at the left ruler edge) until the “Center Tab” icon appears to specify that you are setting a centered tab. Then click on the ruler to insert the center tab.
The centered tab is circled in the ruler above, and you notice that the times are all centered in the column after the tab symbol in the text.
With the columns still highlighted, now click on the tab block until the “Right Tab” icon appears. Then click on the ruler to insert the right tab. Now the Room numbers are right aligned to that tab.

I want to even out the spacing between columns two (Time) and three (Location), and I want to add a bar tab between the columns two and three.

The first step evens out the spacing between columns (sliding the centered tab over on the ruler); the second step inserts the line between columns as below:

Step 1, moving the centered tab over in the ruler:
Highlight the columns and using the cursor, drag the centered tab in the Ruler you'd previously set to the right until you are satisfied with the new location of the column. Note: If you don't highlight all columns you want to move, only the rows highlighted will move.
Step 2, adding the bar tab between the columns:
With the columns still highlighted, click on the tab block at the left edge of the ruler until the “Bar Tab” icon appears. Then click on the ruler to insert the bar tab, once between column one (Day) and column two (Time) and again to insert the bar tab between column 2 (Time) and column 3 (Location).

And this is what the printed tabbed material will look like (or what it will look like if you toggle the Show/Hide icon to Hide):

Why does using set tabs matter? Setting tabs allows you easy control of what your columnar material looks like for the reader.  Word uses a default tab setting of five spaces between tabs, and people using Word who don’t know how to use tabs correctly often put multiple tabs in between columns to get the columns to line up, or they may use a combination of multiple tabs and spaces to get the alignment they want. This can lead to jumbled copy if the end-user has changed the default setting for tabs on their version of Word.

Setting the tabs with the Ruler controls the alignment despite any default settings a user might have in place and allows you to use just one tab and no spaces between columns of material. It’s faster for the writer and gives a guaranteed alignment of the tabbed material.

Practice Time:  Type three columns of material, with one tab between each column.  Include one column that has numbers with a decimal point. Use the Ruler to set tabs for each column, using the "Decimal Tab" for the column that has the numbers.

Do you have questions about features in Microsoft Word for future Law Library Writing Hacks? Send your questions to csfester@uw.edu. For more guidance with Microsoft Word, see the Gallagher Law Library Guide Word Tips for Legal Writers.


Friday, June 7, 2019

Proofreading Tip: Have your computer read your document to you

It’s hard to proofread your own writing because you read what you think you wrote instead of what you wrote.

One way to hear how the text sounds is to get someone to read it to you. But do you really want to bug your friends and colleagues to read all your memos back to you?

Instead, you can get a Microsoft voice to do it. This blog post explains how:
Sarah Gotschall, Harness the Melodic Robotic Voices of Our Eventual Overlords Now to Improve Your Proofreading!, RIPS Law Librarian Blog (June 6, 2019).

You can change the voice and the speed that it reads by going into Windows Settings.

Word document with superimposed cartoon of talking face

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Law Librarian Research Hack: Docket Tracking

Hack #9: Setting up alerts in Bloomberg to track new docket entries. 

Do you need to keep track of an ongoing case but don't want to waste your time looking it up every day just to discover that there have been no updates? Then consider setting up an alert with Bloomberg! By setting up an alert, the database will send you frequent updates when new docket entries have been added. You can customize your alert and track multiple cases at once! Using this "set it and forget it" technique you can take comfort in knowing that you will be notified when new entries are added. 

If you have a docket that you would like regular updates for, you first need to log into Bloomberg (subscription required) and locate that docket. Once in the docket, on the left side of "General Info" there is a "Track Docket" button. 

Pro tip: Note that there is also an "Update Docket" button. It is always wise to update any docket when you are viewing its contents. 

Picture of docket in Bloomberg with "Track Docket" highlighted

In the "Track Docket Options" box, customize how you would like to receive this alert. You can add your own personal tags*, description, search terms, pick your frequency (weekly, daily, custom), and what time in the day you would like the alert. Add your email in the "distribute to" box. You can add multiple emails so you can easily have alerts sent to your work and personal emails. You can even send them to your colleague or peers! Once you click "Accept" you are set up to receive alerts! 

Track docket box that allows users to customize their alerts.


If you need to modify or delete any of your alerts, go to the top of any Bloomberg page and click on the "My Work History" tab and select "Alerts" and click on "Manage Your Alerts." You will be able to view your alerts on the "Alerts Management" page. The edit feature is on the far right column, you can click on the pencil icon of any alert to update or change that alert. If you would like to delete an alert, select the alert and click "Delete". 

Alert management page with an alert. The edit feature is highlighted on the far right column.

*Personal tags can be added by going to the "Settings" tab on the "Alerts Management" page. 

Practice exercise! 
Log into Bloomberg and select the docket option. Type in "U.S. Supreme Court Dockets" in the "Courts" search bar. Then add docket number "17-778" (Jamar Alonzo Quarles vs. United States) and click "Search". Click into the case and follow the instructions above to create a docket tracking alert. Then go into the "Alerts Management" page to see how you can modify your alert. 

Friday, May 31, 2019

HeinOnline Introduces Venn Diagram Visualization

When you were introduced to searching, someone probably drew a couple of circles to show that searching for one term AND another term gives you the intersection of two sets. Now HeinOnline has introduced (in beta) a way to generate those circles (Venn diagrams) in actual searches in its databases.  Just go to Advanced Search and select Venn Diagram Search.

Suppose I'm interested in articles about potential Rule 11 sanctions for sloppy legal research. Searching for "rule 11" AND "legal research" AND shepard* AND keycite give me a list of articles (as always) but also shows me the comparative frequency of the terms in the database. "Legal research" and "rule 11" have big circles that intersect in a sliver. "Keycite" has just a little circle; "shepard*" has a bigger circle, both because Shepard's is a much older product and because "Shepard" is a fairly common name. The intersection is the result of the search.

intersecting colored circles labeled "legal research" etc. (as in text)

Just for fun I tried "star wars" AND "bob dylan" AND elvis (again, in the Law Journal  Library) and got this:

intersecting circles labeled "bob dylan" (small circle), "star wars", and "elvis"


You can use Venn Diagram Searching across all HeinOnline databases or within one. For instance, in U.S. Congressional Documents Library, I searched for obamacare and "pre-existing condition."

In the U.S. Supreme Court Library, I searched for "burger king" AND "international shoe" AND penoyer AND "personal jurisdiction" and got this nice diagram:

colored circles - largest is labeled "personal jurisdiction"

You can click any of the circles or intersections to see the documents that have those terms. 

Try this out: it's fun!


Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Law Librarian Research Hack: There's a research guide for that!

Hack #8: Using non-law research guides from other disciplines and other institutions

Photograph of assorted colored wooden road signs going in different directions.
Photo by Bit Cloud on Unsplash
The Gallagher Law Library has a list of research guides to help you navigate your way through researching a spectrum of legal topics and areas of law. Research guides are compiled by librarians or subject specialists who have done the work of finding relevant and authoritative resources for you. They're the perfect jump start to help direct your research process and make it more efficient and organized.

But what if there's not a legal research guide on your topic? Getting started can feel overwhelming. Most legal topics are inter-disciplinary, so you can look to non-law research guides for help. Fortunately, our friends at UW Libraries have 468 research guides in 56 subjects that are available to you!

Researching the history of animal rights or gender rights and can't find a legal research guide? Guess, what? UW Libraries has research guides on these subjects! If you're researching animal rights, start by looking at the guides alphabetically by subject and you'll find the Animal Studies guide. This guide includes a link to Michigan State University's Animal Legal & Historical Center where you can find information and resources on animal issues by legal topic, compare laws across 50 states, as well as find articles and other resources. It's a guide within a guide! If you're researching gender rights, consider consulting the Gender, Women & Sexuality Studies guide, also available to find by subject. In addition to traditional print and online resources, guides like this one include video and image resources, too.

You might be thinking that this is all really great, but what if the Law Library and UW Libraries do not have a research guide on a topic you're researching, like autonomous vehicles? You can look to research guides from other institutions! How do I do that, you ask? Here is a very scientific way: Go to Google, type research guide [enter your subject/topic] into the search bar, and press enter.

Photograph of Google with research guide autonomous vehicles typed into search bar.
Voila! There's a research guide for that! In fact, within the first page of results there are three great research guides for autonomous vehicles (consult your friendly librarian for help determining a reputable research guide): the NCSL Guide on Autonomous Vehicles, the AAMVA Autonomous Vehicle Information Library and Northwestern University Libraries guide on Motor Vehicles & Drivers: Autonomous Vehicles.

Research guides outside of your institution may link to freely accessible resources, but they may also link to resources only available to patrons of that institution. For example, the Northwestern University guide lists a book titled Autonomous driving: technical, legal and social aspects that is hyperlinked to their library catalog. Of course you can't check this item out from their library, but you can copy the title of the book into the UW Libraries catalog to see if we have it, and we do!
Photograph of title search for "Autonomous driving: technical, legal and social aspects" in UW Libraries catalog.

Practice exercise!
See if you can find a research guide from UW libraries on a topic of your choice. Under Start Your Research, click on research guides and look By Subject, All Guides, or enter your subject or keyword(s) into the Search for Guides search bar. Did you find a research guide on your topic? Or related guide(s) with relevant information and resources?

Now see if you can find a research guide from another institution by searching in Google as described above. Did you find legal and non-legal research guides? See if you can find a book in one of the research guides that UW libraries has, too. Maybe you just found your next book to read!

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Research Hack: Ways to Browse & Search for New Articles

Want to follow new scholarship in your area? Want to search for articles? Want to do it free? Check out the Digital Commons Network and SSRN.

Digital Commons Network

Hundreds of colleges and universities use Digital Commons, a platform for posting publications by faculty, students, departments, and so on. The institutions pay to use the platform, but finding papers and downloading them is free to users.

UW Law is among those hundreds of institutions: UW Law Digital Commons has a growing collection of papers by faculty, articles and comments from the Washington Law Review and the Washington International Law Journal, and more.

Of course it's fun to browse UW Law's pages, but for research it's much more powerful to browse or search whole Digital Commons Network. A colorful wheel gives you a graphical way to visualize the different fields that are covered.

Digital Commons subject wheel. The caption in the center is
"Explore 3,166,425 works from 586 institutions."
A pop-up over part of the orange ring says "Explore Judges."
At the upper left is data about what's in the collection under Judges—
Works: 5,463; Institutions: 144; Downloads: 1,874,756

Monday, May 20, 2019

Games in the library!

To anyone who thinks gamification is a 21st century phenomenon, West's Great American Case Race would beg to differ.

Published in 1984, this game leads 2-4 players through the peaks and pitfalls of legal research. Advancing around the board, the players can draw Westlaw and Lexis cards to earn points and purchase cases to win the game.

Image of the Case Race game board

Of course, the cards pretty clearly reflect who the game publisher is:
  • "Use West Key Numbers from your Reporter to locate latest cases on point in WESTLAW. Easy, Fast, Efficient. Score 3 points or advance up to 2 spaces" 
  • "LEXIS service is easy to learn and changes little over time, because it's rarely improved. Score 3 points or advance up to 2 spaces."
  • "Your LEXIS mug leaks, getting coffee on your keyboard. Lose 3 points."  
They're also pretty indicative of the era:
  • "The telephone company goes on strike, knocking out all data networks. Lose 3 points."
  • "Your IBM PC is compatible with WESTLAW. Score 5 points or advance up to 4 spaces."
  • "Your fingers are too big to type on the UBIQ terminal. Too many typing mistakes cost you time and money. Lose 2 points."

So if you ever want to take a break and be grateful for the ease of modern legal research platforms, you can always check out the Great American Case Race.




Friday, May 17, 2019

Norway Constitution Day in Ballard—and Any Constitution on @HeinOnline

Happy Syttende Mai! Celebrating the signing of the Norwegian constitution in 1814, the festivities were suppressed by the Swedish government for years: although the constitution said that Norway was an independent nation, it wasn't truly separated from Sweden until 1905.

Photo of 2017 Syttende Mail parade, from 17th of May Festival website
You can hop a bus to Ballard for a variety of events today, topped off by a parade at 6:00.

If you want to build your knowledge of the constitution of Norway or just about any other country, visit HeinOnline's World Constitutions Illustrated collection. It includes books, articles, an bibliographies. It even has a page of external links to quickly get you to some great websites about comparative constitutional law.

You can research Armenia or Zimbabwe, but since it's May 17, let's look at Norway
  • Under Constitutions and Fundamental Laws, we find that 1814 constitution (but the only translations are into German and Danish. But we can also find an English translation from 2018, including amendments up to then. The translation is unofficial, since the Norwegians use the Norwegian text, but the translation is by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, so it's probably pretty good.
  •  Under Commentaries & Other Relevant Sources, we find various works, some comparative and some just on Norway (e.g., H. L. Braekstad, Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway: An Historical and Political Survey (1905)).
  • Another tab gives us articles curated by the HeinOnline editors.
  • Finally, we see a bibliography and links to other sites.
And remember, you can get this range of material for lots of countries! We can all drink to that! As they say in Ballard (and Norway too): Skol!

Wednesday, May 15, 2019

Law Librarian Research Hack: Survey Says!

Hack #6: Using 50-State or Multi-State Surveys

A little girl looks at a map of the United States
Photo credit: @loney_planet on Unsplash

50-State or Multi-State Surveys are compilations of state statutes or regulations on a particular topic. They can be incredibly valuable when you need to quickly track down laws from multiple jurisdictions.

As an illustration of just how useful they can be, imagine yourself in this scenario: It's 4:00 p.m. on a Friday afternoon. A partner in your firm just asked you to pull the law on adverse possession for each state in the Ninth and Tenth Circuits before you go home for the weekend. You were hoping to leave the office at 4:30 p.m. to beat traffic as you head out of town for your annual pilgrimage to Viking Fest in Poulsbo, Washington. Two alternate endings to this story are:

1. You Google each state and "adverse possession" and sort through the results hoping that one of them will lead you to the correct statutory citation. You compile the list, fret about whether or not it is accurate, submit it to the partner at 6:00 p.m., get in your car, and eventually make it to Poulsbo (after sitting in some brutal traffic). Throughout the weekend, you are worried about the quality of your work and, as a result, are too nervous to participate in the annual donut eating contest.

2. You pull up the 50-State survey on adverse possession in Westlaw's 50 State Statutory Surveys or through the National Survey of State Laws on HeinOnline. You quickly gather the information for the states in question, consolidate it into a memo to the partner, review the actual statutes to verify the information is accurate and up-to-date, send it off, and hit the road by 4:45 p.m. The partner is impressed with the quick turn-around and your relaxed mindset allows you to handily win the lutefisk eating contest.

Clearly we'd all prefer the latter scenario (perhaps minus the lutefisk), and you can see how 50-State or Multi-Jurisdiction surveys can make your research more efficient.

There are a number of places where you can track down these surveys and many of the available resources are outlined for you in the Gallagher Law Library's 50-State & Multi-Jurisdiction Surveys research guide. By far the most comprehensive listing of available state surveys is the Subject Compilations of State Laws by our very own Cheryl Nyberg. This publication outlines available topical surveys from a number of different sources, including Westlaw, Lexis, law review articles, court opinions or briefs, relevant organizations, and more! You can either browse by topic or (if using the electronic version available through HeinOnline) run a keyword search,

As a practical matter, always be sure to note the date the survey was created and verify that the citations listed are accurate by actually reviewing the statute.

Practice exercise!

Using the Subject Compilation of State Laws on HeinOnline, locate a survey containing state voter ID laws and identify the citation for your home state. Use Westlaw, Lexis, or your state legislature's website to confirm the citation is accurate.

Friday, May 10, 2019

Free Infographic Templates from Piktochart!

Looking for an easy way to create a snazzy infographic without paying a subscription fee?  Try Piktochart!

Many graphics apps have some features available for free, but fancy templates are mostly limited to subscribers who pay a monthly fee.  Earlier this month, Piktochart made all of its templates available to users for free!  This includes templates for infographics, presentations, reports, flyers and posters.  The only catch is that free users can only create up to 5 "visuals."  For a monthly fee, subscribers can create unlimited visuals and get access to additional functionalities.

If none of the Piktochart templates are right for your project, you can build your own visual from scratch!  For example, this timeline (featured on the Gallagher Law Library Employment and Labor Law Guide) was created using Piktochart:

U.S. Labor & Employment Law timeline


It couldn't be easier!  So get those creative juices flowing!

Wednesday, May 8, 2019

Law Library Writing Hack: Microsoft Word Tip

Hack # 5: Cross-referencing Footnotes (and Endnotes) with Microsoft Word
When working with a manuscript that has footnotes, it is common that a footnote in a document will refer to a source previously footnoted. It is common to cross-reference to that footnote rather than repeating the source information in its entirety in the subsequent footnote, using something like "supra note __" in the subsequent footnote.  But when working on a draft of the manuscript, it is not uncommon for additional footnotes to be inserted in the manuscript between those two cross-referenced notes, making the cross-reference note number incorrect as a result. If you use Microsoft Word's cross-referencing feature you can avoid having to manually correct each cross-referenced footnote note number.  (The same procedure also applies to endnotes if you are using endnotes rather than footnotes.)
Follow these steps:
1.    Enter the text to preface your cross-reference. In this example, we will use “supra,” so you would type “supra note”.
2.    Leave a space after your text, then go to the Insert tab, and click on Cross-reference (see red-boxed items in the ribbon below).

Note
:  Typical for Word, there are other ways to access the Cross-reference feature.  You can also go to the Reference tab and click on Cross-reference.





                                                
  3.  This will bring up the Cross-reference dialogue box (below). Under Reference type, select Footnote. Under Insert reference to, select Footnote number. The “Insert as hyperlink” box is checked by default and you will want to leave it checked.
Note: If you are working with Endnotes rather than Footnotes in your draft, you would chose the “Reference type” of “Endnote” from the drop-down menu instead of Footnotes to see your list of endnotes.
4.    At the bottom of the Cross-reference dialogue box, you will see a large area titled “For which footnote.” Listed in this area is every existing footnote in your document. Select the footnote that you wish to refer to by scrolling through the list to highlight the one you want. Click “Insert.” A hyperlink to the selected footnote number will appear where your cursor is in the document.
5.    Close the dialogue box, and continue composing your footnote as usual.
6.    The cross-referenced footnotes do not self-adjust every time you add or delete a footnote between the references. In order to update the cross-references, when you have completed the draft, place your cursor in a footnote and select the text of all footnotes by pressing Ctrl + A. Once all of the footnote text is selected, press F9. A dialogue box will open saying “Word cannot undo this action. Do you want to continue?” Select Yes, and your cross-references will be updated!
Cross-referencing footnotes has some limitations. For example, Word will not change cross-references if you edit the content of the footnote referred to so as to remove the original source you were cross-referencing. Cross-referencing only picks up footnote number changes when footnotes have been added or deleted. However, cross-referencing is still a valuable time-saver because you will not have to manually update each footnote (or endnote) cross-reference.

Do you have questions about features in Microsoft Word for future Law Library Research Hacks? Send your questions to csfester@uw.edu. For more guidance with Microsoft Word, see the Gallagher Law Library Guide
Word Tips for Legal Writers.


Practice time!

Wednesday, May 1, 2019

Law Library Research Hack: Library Links

Hack #4: Linking Your Library to Google Scholar

You might be aware of the powers of a library's catalog. You may also be aware of the advanced search engine of Google Scholar. But did you know that you can combine the two to make one superpower advance research tool? That's right! You can add your academic library's collection to your Google Scholar in three easy steps! Follow the steps below and Google Scholar will remember to search through your chosen library's full-text resources.

1. Open Google Scholar in your browser of choice and click on the three horizontal lines in the top left corner. Next, you will click on the "Settings" button. 

    
Google Scholar browser showing the menu (three horizontal lines) and select the settings option



2. Then select "Library Links."

Google Scholar Setting's menu, select "library links" option.

3. In the search bar, type in the University/College/library that you have an affiliation with* and then click the search button. Google Scholar will give you a list of academic libraries to choose from, select your library and click "save."

"University of Washington" is typed in the search bar and "University of Washington -Full-Text @ UW is selected and "save" is highlighted.

    
Voila! You have successfully linked your library's catalog to Google Scholar! To double check, or to add more libraries (you can link up to five), click on the "library link" and repeat! You will notice under the search bar which libraries you have already saved! 

Under Settings, Library links is selected and "University of Washington- Full-Text @UW" is saved


Practice time! 
Follow steps 1-3 to add your library's catalog to Google Scholar. Then type in a book or article title to see what results are retrieved from Google Scholar AND your library. Google Scholar will display a link to the free, full-text version of the resource on the righthand side. You will need to do this for each of your devices and does not automatically change each of your Google Scholar search engines. Hopefully, this will streamline your research and cut down on the places you need to look for resources! 

"Superheroes and the law" are typed into the search bar, there is an article and on the right-hand side there is "Full Text @ UW" option highlighted.



*Most library subscriptions are limited to users affiliated with that library. Once you select an item on Google Scholar that is provided through the library link, most libraries will ask you to login with your credentials before you can access their online materials